“Because one of the priorities for off-world colonies has to be strong independence from resource shipments from Earth.
“Therefore, we will have to learn how to efficiently harvest plants, use every single lead, lead a recalling scheme on an unimaginable scale, extract raw materials and process them into tools.
“Finally, we will have to try and control the hostile climate.”
NASA aims to land the first humans on Mars through a two-stage programme, dubbed Moon to Mars.
The space agency will first land astronauts on the Moon by the year 2024 and establish a permanent base of operations on the Moon and in lunar orbit.